The Two Mortars Shooting Explosive Balls is a drawing of the Codex Atlanticus by Leonardo Da Vinci.
The Codex Atlanticus is the largest collection of Leonardo’s drawings and it has been preserved in the Veneranda Biblioteca Ambrosiana of Milan since 1637. It consists of 119 sheets which took more than 40 years to complete (1487-1519) representing various themes: from astronomy to art, philosophical meditations, recipes, hydraulic studies and war machines, such as the mortars in question.
The drawing is a completed version of the subject he already sketched on page f. 31 recto.
On the right side of the sheet there are two mortars in perspective, one slightly further than the other.
The mortar in the foreground is shooting a large ball while the second one behind is shooting a sort of plate on which there seemed to be smaller balls, blasting forward and forming an arch that crosses horizontally the drawing.
On the left, with an evident perspective error, the balls are represented larger and all the same size are at the end of the parabola. Thanks to the close-up point of view one can see holes on the balls, from which burst out other bullets in all directions, after the ball touches the ground.
This among the other drawings related to military art seem to paraphrase the famous “presentation letter” that Da Vinci wrote around 1483 to Ludovico il Moro to persuade him to take him to Milan’s Court. Among other various services, Leonardo promoted himself as an intelligent inventor of was machines (the letter is preserved in the Codex Atlanticus, page f. 1082 recto).
The critical success of the drawing is due to its high quality and great imaginative power, but also for being placed at the beginning of the Codex Atlanticus in the 18th century by Pompeo Leoni, as to give a glimpse of the amazing things the scholars would have found in the collection.
Thus, whoever examined the Codex certainly saw this paper and left it in the documents.
Since those years some scholars questioned the autograph of the paper, which was considered too modern to be Leonardo’s original autograph. In fact, the critics, including Carlo Pedretti, came to the conclusion that probably the excessive fineness of the signature and hatching of the two mortars do not coincide with the initial proposed chronology, which is due to a later resumption by the Master, dating probably to the last decade of the 15th century. Observing the features and precise layout of the two mortars, one can see similarities with the monochrome frescoes in Sala delle Asse of the Castello Sforzesco (1497-98).
Feldhaus F.M., Leonardo der Techniker und Erfinden, Jena 1913, p. 41, tav. 4;
Pedretti C., Leonardo da Vinci. Fragments at Windsor Castle from the Codex Atlanticus, London 1957, p.265;
Pedretti C., The Codex Atlanticus of Leonardo da Vinci. A Catalogue of its Newly Restored Sheets, Part One, Vol. I-VI, New York 1978, p. 35;
Marinoni A., Il Codice Atlantico, in Leonardo all’Ambrosiana.Il Codice Atlantico. I disegni di Leonardo e della sua cerchia, a cura di A. Marinoni e L. Cogliati Arano, Milano 1982, cat. N. 3, p.22;
Marani P.C., L’architettura fortificata negli studi di Leonardo da Vinci. Con il catalogo completo dei disegni, Firenze 1984, fig, XXXVIII, p. 314;
Marani P.C., Leonardo e i leonardeschi nei Musei della Lombardia, Milano 1990, pp. 30, 32;
Marani P.C., scheda di catalogo in L’Ambrosiana e Leonardo, Novara 1998, pp. 28-30, cat. 2, (con bibliografia precedente)
Leonardo was born in Anchiano in 1452. He was an illegitimate son of notary Ser Piero di Vinci who brought him to Florence in 1469 to give him artistic education.
In 1472 he enrolled to the Compagnia dei Pittori and attended Andrea del Verrocchio’s workshop, participating also in the anatomical research with Antonio and Piero Pollaiolo.
In 1482 Leonardo moved to Milan to serve Ludovico il Moro. He introduced himself as a musician, painter, sculptor, engineer and architect. He painted several works in the court of Moro, among them the Lady with an Ermine and worked on the equestrian monument for Francesco Sforza.
He was a set designer for various court celebrations and studied hydraulic and military engineering. He also devoted himself to physical and natural sciences, as shown in many of his drawings. His most famous work of this period was the Last Supper in Santa Maria delle Grazie (1495 – 1498) where he experimented with tempera on plaster technique instead of the traditional fresco. This resulted in poor state of conservation, which Vasari already mentions in the mid-16th century.
Ludovico il Moro was defeated by the French in 1500 and Leonardo set off to Venice with his friend, mathematician Luca Pacioli and his student Salai. Then he went to Mantua as a guest of Isabella d’Este and painted her portrait. In the same year he returned to Florence, where he painted Madonna and Child with St. Anne (Louvre, cartoon at the National Gallery of London) and the cartoon for the Battle of Anghiari (1504-1505) for the Salone dei Cinquecento in Palazzo Vecchio.
He was commissioned by the Gonfaloniere of the Florentine Republic, Pier Soderini, who had also commissioned Michelangelo, who was working with the Battle of Cascina. Leonardo experimented with ancient encaustic technique, which turned out to be unsuccessful. Therefore, the project was not completed and today only some drawings have remained of the lost cartoon, such as the Tavola Doria.
Leonardo traveled to Urbino, Pesaro, Rimini and Cesenatico where he continued to study hydraulics, cartography and fortifications, but in 1505 he returned to Milan. He made several trips between Lombardy, Florence and Rome and continued his science research, but he was never commissioned by the Vatican, which favored the works of Raphael and Michelangelo.
Disappointed Leonardo left Italy in 1517 to take refuge in the castle of Cloux, near Ambroise in France, under the protection of Francis I, who gave him an annual pension. He brought numerous paintings with him, like Mona Lisa, which he painted in Florence in 1503. In France he continued his anatomical and scientific studies of which he left many drawings.
Leonardo died in 1519.
Pinacoteca Ambrosiana was established in 1618 by cardinal Federico Borromeo, when he donated his art collection to the Ambrosiana library, which was founded by him as well in 1607. The building was named after the patron saint of Milan, St. Ambrose.
It was the first museum in the world to be open to the public. The history of the Pinacoteca and the library goes hand in hand, as this was also the first library to be open to the public. The book collection includes prestigious volumes, among them Petrarch’s Virgil with illuminated manuscript by Simone Martini and Da Vinci’s Codex Atlanticus, donated in 1637 by Galeazzo Arconati.
In fact, cardinal’s plan was to display art with its symbology and evocative power to serve Christian values reaffirmed by the Council of Trent (1545-1563), which were threatened by the diffusion of the Protestant reformation.
The academy was added in 1637 and transferred to Brera in 1776. It was supposed to be an artistic school of painting, sculpture and architecture which would allow the students to learn from the great models of the history.
The building was designed by architect Fabio Mangone (1587-1629) and it is located in the city center. The space is expanded over 1500 square meters and divided into twenty-two rooms. The cardinal illustrated the works and the objects himself in his book in Latin, Museum (1625), which still today represents the main nucleus of the Pinacoteca.
Through commissions and purchases Federico Borromeo’s collection grew with the paintings of Lombard and Tuscan schools, among them works by Raphael, Correggio and Bernardino Luini and casts from Leone Leoni’s workshop, arriving to a total of 3000 artworks of which 300 are exhibited.
There are great masterpieces such as the Portrait of a Musician by Leonardo Da Vinci (1480), Madonna del Padiglione by Botticelli (1495), the cartoon for the School of Athens by Raphael (before 1510), the Holy Family with St. Anne and Young St. John by Bernardino Luini (1530) and the Rest on the Flight into Egypt by Jacopo Bassano (1547).
A great part of the collection is dedicated to landscape and to still life, because the Cardinal saw the nature as an important tool raising the human mind into the Divine. For this reason, Federico collected Caravaggio’s Basket of Fruit and the miniature paintings by Jan Brueghel and Paul Brill.
After the cardinal’s death the collection was enriched with the donations of the artworks from 15th and 16th centuries, such as the frescoes by Bramantino and Antonio Canova and Bertel Thorvaldsen’s marble self-portraits. Museo Settala, one of the first museums in Italy, founded by canonical Manfredo Settala (1600-1680), was joined to Pinacoteca Ambrosiana in 1751. The museum is a sort of science history museum with a variety of curiosities of all time.
During the period of growth, the museum required some structural and architectural changes as well, including the expansion of the exhibition halls between 1928 and 1931, which were decorated with 13th century miniature motifs of Ambrosian codes, and between 1932 and 1938 a new series of restorations was implemented under the guidance of Ambrogio Annoni. The renowned readjustment in 1963 was curated by architect Luigi Caccia Dominioni and the museum excursus was concluded with the current reorganization between 1990 and 1997.